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They move from one corner of any rectangle of three squares by two to the opposite corner; thus, in diagram 3, the white knight can move to the square occupied by the black one, and vice versa, or a knight could move from C to D, or D to C. It is no obstacle to the knight’s move if squares A and B are occupied.It will be perceived that the knight always moves to a square of a different colour.She is the most powerful piece on the board, for her action is a union of those of the rook and bishop.The rooks (from the Indian rukh and Persian rokh, meaning a soldier or warrior) move in straight lines—forward or backward—but they cannot move, diagonally.The Board, Pieces and Moves.—The chessboard is divided (see accompanying diagrams) into sixty-four chequered squares.In diagram 1, the pieces, or chess-men, are arranged for the beginning of a game, while diagram 2 shows the denomination of the squares according to the English and German systems of notation.The rook, knight and bishop on the right of the king are known as King’s rook, King’s knight, and King’s bishop; the other three as Queen’s rook, Queen’s knight, and Queen’s bishop.
The moves and capturing powers of the pawns are as follows:—Each pawn for his first move may advance either one or two squares straight forward, but afterwards one square only, and this whether upon starting he exercised his privilege of moving two squares or not. He can capture only diagonally—one square to his right or left front.
If, however, when the king is in check, none of these things can be done, it is “checkmate” (Persian, shah mat, the king is dead), known generally as “mate,” whereupon the game terminates, the player whose king has been thus checkmated being the loser.
When the adversary has only his king left, it is very easy to checkmate him with only a queen and king, or only a rook and king.
“Check by discovery” is given when a player, by moving one of his pieces, checks with another of them.
“Double check” means attacking the king at once with two pieces—one of the pieces in this case giving check by discovery.
The problem is less easy with king and two bishops, and still less easy with king, knight and bishop, in which case the opposing king has to be driven into a corner square whose colour corresponds with the bishop’s, mate being given with the bishop. To mate with king and rook the opposing king must be driven on to one of the four side files and kept there with the rook on the next file, till it is held by the other king, when the rook mates.